Transliteration Tables for Use in TC


The Hebrew transliteration table is based on the Michigan- Claremont encoding scheme, with the following exceptions: lower- case letters are generally used rather than upper-case; shureq and composite shewas use only one character instead of two. Click here for a listing of the original Michigan-Claremont codes. Note that final forms of letters are not generally distinguished. If necessary, the corresponding upper-case letter may be used.

Hebrew letter            Transliteration

alef                     )
bet                      b
gimel                    g
dalet                    d
he                       h
waw                      w
zayin                    z
het                      x
tet                      +
yod                      y
kaf                      k
lamed                    l
mem                      m
nun                      n
samek                    s
ayin                     (
pe                       p
tsade                    c
qof                      q
resh                     r
sin                      &
shin                     $
sin/shin (unpointed)     #
taw                      t
patah                    a
qamets                   f
hireq                    i
segol                    e
tsere                    "
holem                    o
qibbuts                  u
shureq                   U
shewa                    :
holem waw                ow
hatef-patah              A
hatef-qamets             F
hatef-segol              E
maqqef                   -
dagesh                   .
rafe                     ,
meteg                    |
sof pasuq                ;

Special Masoretic Marks:

numeral/abbrev mark      @ (e.g., l@ [lyt], once)
single word abbrev mark  ' (e.g., h' [h$m], the Name)
multi-word abbrev mark   = (e.g., r=p [r)$ pswq)], beginning of verse)
circule                  \


The Greek transliteration table is based on the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae encoding scheme, with the following exception: instead of distinguishing upper-case from lower-case letters by putting an asterisk in front of upper-case letters, both upper- and lower-case letters are used in the present scheme, obviating the need for the asterisk. Click here for a listing of the original TLG codes.

Greek letter (uc/lc)     Transliteration

alpha                    A,a
beta                     B,b
gamma                    G,g
delta                    D,d
epsilon                  E,e
digamma                  V,v
zeta                     Z,z
eta                      H,h
theta                    Q,q
iota                     I,i
kappa                    K,k
lamda                    L,l
mu                       M,m
nu                       N,n
ksi                      C,c
omicron                  O,o
pi                       P,p
rho                      R,r
sigma (all)              S,s
 [or final=              J,j]
tau                      T,t
upsilon                  U,u
phi                      F,f
chi                      X,x
psi                      Y,y
omega                    W,w

diaeresis                + 
smooth breathing         ) 
rough breathing          ( 
iota subscript           | 
acute accent             / 
grave accent             \ 
circumflex accent        = 
subscript dot            ? 
midpoint punctuation     : 
question mark            ;
period                   .
comma                    ,
dash                     --
hyphen                   -
elision mark             '
superlinear stroke       _ (underscore) - also used for macron


Use Hebrew encoding scheme.


Syriac letter            Transliteration

alaph                    )
beth                     b
gamal                    g
dalath                   d
he                       h
waw                      w
zayn                     z
heth                     x
teth                     +
yudh                     y
kaph                     k
lamadh                   l
mim                      m
nun                      n
semkath                  s
e                        (
pe                       p
tsadhe                   c
qoph                     q
rish                     r
shin                     $
taw                      t

ptaha (short a)          a
zqapa (long a)           f
hbatsa (i)               i
rbatsa (e)               e
utsatsa (u)              u

seyame                   ^
end of section (diamond) *
raised dot               &
two diagonal dots        ;
two vertical dots        !
dot above                [
dot below                ]
underline                _


Same as Greek, with the following additional characters:
Coptic letter            Transliteration

shay                     $
fay                      !
hay                      #
hori                     ^
janja                    ~
chima                    @
ti (digraph)             %
superlinear stroke       _ (underscore)

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