Dispensing with hyparchetypes in the Genealogical Method. (A) shows a hypothetical case in which a text is transmitted from state X to states Z1 and Z2 via an intermediate state Z, which is now lost. However, the direction of textual change from X to Z1 and Z2 can be determined without the intermediary state. (B) shows a case in which readings in Z2 are either equal to the corresponding readings in X or Z1, or (if not equal) can be derived from X or Z1. Differences between Z1 and Z2 may or may not be due to contamination with readings from sources other than X.