TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism:
Volume 8 (2003)

TC articles and reviews that contain Hebrew, Greek, or other languages that use non-Roman scripts use dynamic (embedded) fonts. For more details about dynamic fonts, see TC Notes 3. Versions of the articles that use transliterated characters are also available, as are text-only versions (i.e., no Web formatting). TC uses a standard transliteration scheme in the regular HTML and text versions of all its articles. Words that are transliterated in the text are enclosed in tags that indicate the language of the words, for example, <heb> (Hebrew), <arc> (Aramaic), <grc> (Greek), and <syr> (Syriac). Click here to see a more complete list of abbreviations.

Editorials and General Information for Readers

Obituary: William G. Pierpont

Obituary: Theodore Cressy Skeat


Michael Graves, The Origins of Ketiv-Qere Readings

Abstract: Attempts to explain the origins of the Ketiv-Qere readings have centered around two basic models. According to one model, both the Ketiv and the Qere represent variant readings which can be traced back to an ancient collation of manuscripts. According to the other model, readers introduced the Qere into the written text (the Ketiv) with the intention of correcting what they perceived to be an error. Views that combine features of these two models also exist. The author suggests that the two traditional models have not supplied an adequate framework for evaluating the origins of the Ketiv-Qere readings and that a better approach can be established by focusing on the central questions which cut across both traditional positions.

Peter M. Head, Fragments of Six Newly Identified Greek Bible Manuscripts in a Cambridge Collection: A Preliminary Report

Abstract: Vellum fragments of seven different manuscripts, six of them identified as portions of the Greek Bible (five NT, one OT), have recently come to light. The author presents a description of the manuscripts, including the biblical passages the first six contain. He offers a full transcription of the seventh fragment, an unidentified Christian text, perhaps a list of offices.

David Marcus, A Proto-Masoretic Gloss in the Prayer for the King (Psalm 61:7-8)?

Abstract: The form Nma in the prayer for the king in Psalm 61 is an old crux interpretum. It has traditionally been taken as a pi'el apocopated imperative from the verb hnFmf meaning "appoint!" In this article the author examines the suggestion that Nma represents a proto-Masoretic gloss standing for Nw%n )l'mf to indicate that the following form w%hrUc;n:yI is written with the letter nûn. He raises a number of objections to this proposal and demonstrates that if Nma represents a Masoretic note it would be the first example of its type.

Emanuel Tov, Electronic Resources Relevant to the Textual Criticism of Hebrew Scripture

Abstract: Numerous electronic resources of interest to text critics are now available, both commercially and free on the Web. This article gives an overview of these resources, then provides a list of currently available tools that the author considers the most valuable.

Review Articles

James A. Sanders, Avenues of Access to Scripture in Early Jewish Literature

Abstract: David Washburn's A Catalog of Biblical Passages in the Dead Sea Scrolls is the latest example of an index or catalog of biblical passages found in early Jewish literature. It is compared with the earlier efforts by Scanlin, VanderKam/Flint, Abegg, and others. Despite its shortcomings, Washburn provides a useful tool for scholars, but future publications of a similar nature could be improved by considering the publications mentioned in the present article and by being more comprehensive in scope.


One of the goals of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism is to provide informative and timely reviews of books in the field of biblical textual criticism. Anyone who would like to suggest a book for review or who would like to volunteer to be a reviewer may contact the TC book review editor, Leonard Greenspoon ( or the general editor, James R. Adair (

Klaus Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah 40-55 (Claude Cox, reviewer)

David Alan Black, ed., Rethinking New Testament Textual Criticism (Kim Haines-Eitzen, reviewer)

François Bovon, Luke 1: A Commentary on the Gospel of Luke 1:1-9:50. (Dirk Jongkind, reviewer)

Kent D. Clarke, "A Rebuttal to William L. Petersen's Review of Studies in the Early Text of the Gospels and Acts" (in TC 7; see also Petersen's response in TC 8)

David J. A. Clines, The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, vol. 5: m-n (Johan Lust, reviewer)

Johann Cook, ed., Bible and Computer: The Stellenbosch AIBI-6 Conference: Proceedings of the Association Internationale Bible et Informatique "From Alpha to Byte," University of Stellenbosch 17-21 July, 2000. (Thomas Hieke, reviewer)

Harold W. Hoehner, Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary. (Gie Vleugels, reviewer)

Craig R. Koester, Hebrews: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (Tobias Nicklas, reviewer)

Ulrich Luz, Matthew 8-20 (P. J. Williams, reviewer)

Nicholas Perrin, Thomas and Tatian: The Relationship between the Gospel of Thomas and the Diatessaron. (D. C. Parker, reviewer)

William L. Petersen, A Response to Kent D. Clarke (in TC 8; see also Petersen's original review in TC 7)

Reuben J. Swanson, ed., New Testament Greek Manuscripts: Variant Readings Arranged in Horizontal Lines against Codex Vaticanus: Romans. (D. C. Parker, reviewer)

David L. Washburn, A Catalog of Biblical Passages in the Dead Sea Scrolls (Robert F. Shedinger, reviewer)